T11his ability to pass on concepts to us across generations, give guidelines to share, communicate concepts across the abyss of space as well as time has actually made it possible to make wonderful strides in our understanding of the cosmos, good understanding and also self-understanding.
To understand how writing began, we must go to ancient Sumer, where writing first began to be used extensively. Take a look around. What do you see? Yes, you see potters as well as sellers.
You see the streets and gardens. These temples play a big role in why writing began.
Not thousands of people or countless individuals, but together tens of thousands. As well as these cities developed city-states, unified by the worship of a particular team of gods. Individuals regulated irrigation and cities expanded. And as cities grew, so did the temples for the gods.
Yet these enormous, huge holy place complexes they did not offer just as tabernacles.
No, take a better look. Do you see those guys bringing jugs filled with grain right here? These temples likewise acted as huge storehouses. Database for the immense riches of the city. In great times, presents moved in.
Look next to the men who carry the grain. Do you see a man watching them?
Note that whenever they bring a container of grain, he will make a small mark on his clay table.
With such an economic climate, with great deals of supplies, transferring to as well as from the temple daily, they required to keep records in some way. As well as that’s specifically what he does. That table will be conserved later, to ensure that the clergymans may understand exactly what they contend hand in their gigantic holy place storehouse. But also though brands have their place in the original writing, there is something a lot more fascinating for us on this moist piece of clay that he holds.
He attracted a little photo of a grain stalk alongside his documents, so it is clear that his information describe grain. For generations, this great little drawing of grain has been streamlined. Much more abstract. Scribes were looking for faster and also much easier methods to tape-record products, they did not busily draw every sub-item offered the holy place, yet rather they came to a mutually concurred set of even more symbolic depictions for items flowing into holy areas. And also you can see how somebody could take place, that these symbols need not just represent the principle of something, however likewise the word itself.
Which’s specifically what happened.
The symbol for the cow was understood not only as a representative of the animal, but also as a word cow. Still, with a thousand nouns, you can’t do much. As well as below comes a pleased linguistic coincidence. Do you see the people at the temple speaking with each other?
If you might hear them, it would sound like every person was saying the same point over as well as over again. Because Sumerian is a language where most words are just syllables and where the terms are composed of word composition, this is. Both of these points are essential since when many of your words are monosyllabic, it is simple not to consider an icon as a word, but as a noise for that word. Quit thinking about a sign suggesting a word as well as start to think concerning the basic significance of its sound, which can suggest extra certain points. When you do this, you will not draw pictures for every word in the language.
Now you begin to believe of photos as noises as well as integrating sounds with each other enables you to develop different words.
And when you combine that with that in Sumerian a number of terms were based on simple words, for example, a sickle plus grain could mean a harvest, so there is a quantum of what you can do with concepts and sounds, which represent thousands of images. Because how the scribes wrote has changed the way we write in Western countries today.
See how he writes from top to bottom, just as you would write a list. And if you accidentally rest your hand while writing from top to bottom, you can easily delete the entire column you just typed.
This risk is reduced if you start writing from left to. It was easier for scribes, but other literate people, who had to read it learned from top to bottom, so they didn’t like this sideways writing.
Soon people read characters written sideways from left to. This writing system was then adopted by the neighboring Akkad and Elamites, who generalized it even more.
As well as now you have an actual writing system.
Initial pictures, yet additionally pictograms changed from them they entirely vanished right into the wedge prints as well as lines produced by the stylus pen after that chosen. Which means rather than a handful of nouns to be written to supply listings right here we have a creating system that can provide us lyrical and abstract points like the Epic of Gilgamesh or Enum elish. How do we understand all this? Funny aspect of clay: When a place refute and also all your records get on clay, instead of being destroyed, they solidify as well as remain.
It won’t happen here for a while. Let’s praise scribes like this and the wonderful city of Sumer for what they gave us. A gift that lasted us more than five and a half thousand years. Writing. Since we don’t get to the False Episodes for these one-offs, I want to emphasize that this is only the first place in history where writing has flourished.
It will later develop independently in Mesoamerica and was almost certainly developed independently in China. There is a great deal of controversy over whether it has developed independently in the Indus Valley and Egypt. Although from what we have read, which is far from enough for a layman’s opinion, I believe that both groups have inherited the basic concept from Sumer. Let us know in the comments if you liked this attempt and you are interested in the history of ideas as well as the history of people and companies. If so, we’ll try to do it sometimes.
1 Essential Introduction: BEAUTIFUL WRITING
2 Essential Introduction FIRST EXERCISES
3 Essential Introduction: LETTER WEIGHT
4 Essential Introduction: PEN ANGLE
5 Essential Introduction: RULING UP
8 Setting up a board
11 Preparing a metal pen
12 My pen won’t work!
13 Correcting errors
14 Left handed calligraphy
16 Foundational Hand: lower case I, l, j
17 Foundational Hand: lower case o, c, e
18 Foundational Hand: lower case d, b, p, q
19 Foundational Hand: lower case n, h, m, r, u, a
20 Foundational Hand: lower case v, w, x, y, z
21 Foundational Hand: lower case t,s,f,k
22 Foundational Hand: lower case g
23 Roman Letters: Skeleton capitals s
24 Foundational Capitals: C, I, H, O, Q
25 Foundational Capitals: S, U, K, J
26 Foundational Capitals: V, W, X, Y, Z
27 Foundational Capitals: E, F, L, T, G
28 Foundational Capitals: P, B, D, R
29 Foundational Capitals: A, M, N
31 A Poem
32 Italic iljt
33 Italic oce
34 Italic agd
35 Italic bpq
36 Italic nmhru
37 Italic vwxyz
38 Italic fks
39 Italic IJT
40 Italic HLFE
41 Italic OQCG
42 Italic DBPR
43 Italic MNA
44 Italic VWXYZ
45 Italic USK
46 Italic Numbers
47 Italic William Blake quotation
Further videos will be added as they are completed