T11his ability to hand down suggestions to us across generations, offer guidelines to share, connect ideas throughout the void of area and also time has actually made it feasible to make terrific strides in our understanding of the cosmos, mutual understanding and also self-understanding.
To understand how writing began, we must go to ancient Sumer, where writing first began to be used extensively. Yes, you see merchants and potters.
You see the streets and gardens. What do you see towering over it all? Temples. These holy places play a big function in why composing started. Since Sumer was the country of the very first actual cities worldwide.
Not numerous individuals or thousands of individuals, but with each other 10s of thousands. And these cities produced city-states, unified by the worship of a specific group of gods. Individuals managed watering and cities grew. And also as cities expanded, so did the holy places for the gods.
These massive, vast temple complexes they did not serve only as tabernacles.
No, take a better look. Do you see those men bringing containers full of grain here? These holy places likewise worked as significant storehouses. Repository for the enormous wealth of the city. In good times, gifts moved in.
Look next to the men who carry the grain. Do you see a man watching them?
Keep in mind that whenever they bring a jug of grain, he will certainly make a tiny mark on his clay table.
With such an economy, with lots of supplies, relocating to and also from the holy place on a daily basis, they required to maintain records somehow. Which’s precisely what he does. That table will be saved later on, to ensure that the priests may know specifically what they contend hand in their huge temple warehouse. Even though brands have their place in the original writing, there is something much more interesting for us on this damp piece of clay that he holds.
Scribes were looking for faster and easier ways to record commodities, they did not laboriously draw every sub-item brought to the temple, but instead they came to a mutually agreed set of more symbolic representations for goods flowing into holy places. And you can see how someone could happen, that these symbols need not only represent the concept of something, but also the word itself.
And that’s specifically what occurred.
The symbol for the cow was understood not only as a representative of the animal, but also as a word cow. Do you see the people at the temple talking to each other?
If you might hear them, it would certainly sound like every person was saying the same thing over and over again. This is since Sumerian is a language where most words are just syllables and also where the terms are made up of word composition. Both of these points are essential due to the fact that when a number of your words are monosyllabic, it is easy not to think of a symbol as a word, yet as a sound for that word. Quit thinking about an icon showing a word and start to think of the basic meaning of its sound, which can show more particular points. When you do this, you will not draw images for each and every word in the language.
Now you begin to think of pictures as sounds as well as incorporating audios with each other enables you to develop different words.
And when you incorporate that keeping that in Sumerian a variety of terms were based upon simple words, as an example, a sickle plus grain might imply a harvest, so there is a quantum of what you can do with ideas as well as audios, which represent hundreds of pictures. But we’re refrained from doing yet. Due to the fact that just how the scribes created has actually transformed the method we compose in Western countries today. Do you bear in mind just how our friend in the temple adds grain?
See how he writes from top to bottom, just as you would write a list. And if you accidentally rest your hand while writing from top to bottom, you can easily delete the entire column you just typed.
This risk is reduced if you start writing from left to. It was easier for scribes, but other literate people, who had to read it learned from top to bottom, so they didn’t like this sideways writing.
Quickly people read characters created laterally from delegated right. But because they were inverted, they were much more abstract now. A lot more different from the things and pictures they used to stand for. This composing system was after that embraced by the neighboring Akkad and also Elamites, that generalised it a lot more. Elements or little characters have likewise been included in determine which component of the speech was which, to avoid uncertainty.
As well as currently you have a real writing system.
Which means instead of a handful of nouns to be written to stock lists here we have a writing system that can give us lyrical and abstract things like the Epic of Gilgamesh or Enum elish. Funny thing about clay: When a place burns down and all your records are on clay, instead of being destroyed, they remain and harden.
It won’t happen here for a while. Let’s praise scribes like this and the wonderful city of Sumer for what they gave us. A gift that lasted us more than five and a half thousand years. Writing. Since we don’t get to the False Episodes for these one-offs, I want to emphasize that this is only the first place in history where writing has flourished.
From what we have read, which is far from enough for a layman’s opinion, I believe that both groups have inherited the basic concept from Sumer. Let us know in the comments if you liked this attempt and you are interested in the history of ideas as well as the history of people and companies.
1 Essential Introduction: BEAUTIFUL WRITING
2 Essential Introduction FIRST EXERCISES
3 Essential Introduction: LETTER WEIGHT
4 Essential Introduction: PEN ANGLE
5 Essential Introduction: RULING UP
8 Setting up a board
11 Preparing a metal pen
12 My pen won’t work!
13 Correcting errors
14 Left handed calligraphy
16 Foundational Hand: lower case I, l, j
17 Foundational Hand: lower case o, c, e
18 Foundational Hand: lower case d, b, p, q
19 Foundational Hand: lower case n, h, m, r, u, a
20 Foundational Hand: lower case v, w, x, y, z
21 Foundational Hand: lower case t,s,f,k
22 Foundational Hand: lower case g
23 Roman Letters: Skeleton capitals s
24 Foundational Capitals: C, I, H, O, Q
25 Foundational Capitals: S, U, K, J
26 Foundational Capitals: V, W, X, Y, Z
27 Foundational Capitals: E, F, L, T, G
28 Foundational Capitals: P, B, D, R
29 Foundational Capitals: A, M, N
31 A Poem
32 Italic iljt
33 Italic oce
34 Italic agd
35 Italic bpq
36 Italic nmhru
37 Italic vwxyz
38 Italic fks
39 Italic IJT
40 Italic HLFE
41 Italic OQCG
42 Italic DBPR
43 Italic MNA
44 Italic VWXYZ
45 Italic USK
46 Italic Numbers
47 Italic William Blake quotation
Further videos will be added as they are completed
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