T11his capacity to hand down suggestions to us throughout generations, offer guidelines to share, communicate ideas across the abyss of space as well as time has actually made it feasible to make terrific strides in our understanding of deep space, good understanding and self-understanding.
To understand how writing began, we must go to ancient Sumer, where writing first began to be used extensively. Yes, you see merchants and potters.
You see the streets and gardens. These temples play a big role in why writing began.
Not hundreds of individuals or hundreds of individuals, however with each other 10s of thousands. As well as these cities developed city-states, joined by the prayer of a certain group of gods. People managed irrigation as well as cities grew. And also as cities expanded, so did the temples for the gods.
But these substantial, huge temple complexes they did not serve only as habitations.
No, take a better look. Do you see those guys bringing containers complete of grain right here? These holy places likewise offered as substantial warehouses. Repository for the enormous wide range of the city. In great times, gifts flowed in.
As well as in tough times, they were divided back. This system produced a massive riches for the priest, but he also made certain that cities of this size can work. We don’t care now. Look beside the guys who bring the grain. Do you see a man seeing them?
Note that whenever they bring a jug of grain, he will certainly make a tiny mark on his clay table.
With such an economy, with lots of supplies, moving to and from the temple every day, they needed to keep records somehow. That table will be saved later, so that the priests may know exactly what they have at hand in their giant temple storehouse.
He drew a tiny image of a grain stalk beside his documents, so it is clear that his information describe grain. For generations, this nice little illustration of grain has actually been streamlined. Much more abstract. Scribes were looking for faster and also easier means to tape-record products, they did not busily attract every sub-item brought to the temple, but instead they concerned an equally agreed collection of more symbolic representations for products streaming into sanctuaries. And also you can see how a person might take place, that these icons need not just represent the idea of something, but also the word itself.
And also that’s exactly what took place.
The symbol for the cow was understood not only as a representative of the animal, but also as a word cow. Do you see the people at the temple talking to each other?
Both of these points are important because when many of your words are monosyllabic, it is easy not to think of a symbol as a word, but as a sound for that word. Stop thinking of a symbol indicating a word and begin to think about the general meaning of its sound, which can indicate more specific things.
Currently you begin to think of images as noises and incorporating noises with each other enables you to produce various words.
And when you combine that with that in Sumerian a number of terms were based on simple words, for example, a sickle plus grain could mean a harvest, so there is a quantum of what you can do with concepts and sounds, which represent thousands of images. Because how the scribes wrote has changed the way we write in Western countries today.
See how he writes from top to bottom, just as you would write a list. And if you accidentally rest your hand while writing from top to bottom, you can easily delete the entire column you just typed.
However this threat is lowered if you start creating from left to right. However adequate individuals in the temple really did not such as the advancement. It was easier for scribes, yet other literate individuals, that needed to read it gained from leading to base, so they really did not like this sidewards creating. What did the scribes do? They simply rotated all the characters 90 levels to make sure that one can transform the table as well as review it from top to base as usual.
Soon individuals read characters composed sideways from left to right. But due to the fact that they were upside down, they were much more abstract currently. Much more different from the pictures and also points they made use of to stand for. This creating system was after that taken on by the neighboring Akkad and also Elamites, that generalised it a lot more. Variables or tiny characters have actually additionally been added to figure out which part of the speech was which, to stay clear of uncertainty.
And currently you have a real creating system.
Initial pictures, yet likewise pictograms transformed from them they completely vanished right into the wedge prints as well as lines created by the stylus pen then liked. Which means rather than a handful of nouns to be composed to supply lists here we have a writing system that can give us abstract and also lyrical points like the Epic of Gilgamesh or Enum elish. How do we understand all this? Amusing feature of clay: When a place burns down and also all your records get on clay, rather of being destroyed, they harden and also continue to be.
It won’t happen here for a while. Let’s praise scribes like this and the wonderful city of Sumer for what they gave us. A gift that lasted us more than five and a half thousand years. Writing. Since we don’t get to the False Episodes for these one-offs, I want to emphasize that this is only the first place in history where writing has flourished.
It will later develop independently in Mesoamerica and was almost certainly developed independently in China. There is a great deal of controversy over whether it has developed independently in the Indus Valley and Egypt. From what we have read, which is far from enough for a layman’s opinion, I believe that both groups have inherited the basic concept from Sumer. If you liked this attempt and you are interested in the history of ideas as well as the history of people and companies, let us know in the comments. If so, we’ll try to do it sometimes.
#Hyundai #Palisade #Calligraphy #HTRAC #AWD #Snow
The 2021 Hyundai Palisade Calligraphy edition offers a few extras over last-year’s Limited trim. We cover the differences and then take the Palisade into the forest for a snow-road challenge that has… unexpected results.
#hyundai #snowtest #crossover
00:00 – Introduction
01:40 – Driving (including 0-60 test)
07:44 – Forest Road
10:20 – Snow Challenge
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